Types of Dental Implants & How They Work
What are Dental Implants?
A dental implant (artificial tooth root) is a popular tooth replacement option after tooth loss or extraction. Implants are surgically implanted into your jawbone, mirror the shape of a screw, and bond with the natural bone. They create a base to support dental crowns (artificial teeth).
An abutment (supporting tooth) is placed between the implant and crown to connect all of the pieces together. Abutments also connect crowns to dental bridges, removable dentures, and partial dentures.
Dental implants have been successful dental restorations for over 30 years. In fact, more than 5 million dental implants are placed in the U.S. every year.
Dental Implant Structure: How They Work
The body of a dental implant consists of three pieces that serve different functions:
- The implant (or screw) serves as the tooth's artificial root.
- The abutment is the connecting post between the implant screw and crown.
- The crown is the 'fake' tooth that rests on top of the abutment. Crowns are made of porcelain, which is a tooth-colored material that matches the shape and looks of your natural teeth.
Dental Implant Techniques & Materials
Dental implants come in two different forms, including:
- Endosteal Implant
An endosteal implant (root form implant) is the most common type of implant used today. They are made with titanium, small screws, and alloplastic material, which refers to an artificial tissue graft. Endosteal implants are surgically inserted into the jawbone. Over time, the implants bond with the natural bone.
- Subperiosteal implants are extremely rare. However, they may be a better option for patients who do not have enough natural jawbone to support endosteal implants. A subperiosteal implant is placed under the gums (on or above the jawbone). It is not surgically inserted into the jawbone.
4 Types of Dental Implants
Depending on needs, there are a few different types of dental implants available:
1. Single Tooth Implant
A single dental implant is ideal when one tooth is missing and you want to replace it for esthetics, comfort, and function.
Single implants require one dental crown that connects to the implant screw.
The average cost of a single tooth implant can range from $3,000 to $4,000.
2. Implant-Supported Bridge
Implant-supported bridges are ideal for people with several missing teeth. The implant acts as an anchor for the bridge (instead of a natural tooth).
A fixed dental bridge restores function by preventing other teeth from moving. It also improves eating and speaking functions.
An implant-supported bridge costs between $5,000 and $16,000.
3. All-on-4 Dental Implants
All-on-4 implants are recommended when a patient is looking for a secure solution for many missing teeth. This solution restores your entire upper or lower jaw (or both arches).
This is a permanent restoration. However, the overdenture can be removed for cleaning and dental exams.
The average cost ranges from $15,000 to $20,000 per arch.
4. 3-on-6 Dental Implants
An alternative to an implant-retained denture is a 3-on-6 implant. It consists of three individual dental bridges attached to six dental implants.
The cost of 3-on-6 implants can range from $10,000 to $15,000 per arch.
Who Performs Dental Implant Procedures?
Two dental specialists perform dental implant surgeries, including:
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons — Oral surgeons specialize in the placement of dental implants. Oral surgeons are also qualified to use deeper levels of sedation and understand how to do it safely.
- Periodontists — periodontists focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal disease. They have advanced training in dental implant placement and gum inflammation treatment.
- Prosthodontists — prosthodontists are dentists who specialize in treating complex dental and facial matters. This includes the restoration and replacement of missing or damaged teeth with artificial devices.
Pros and Cons of Dental Implants
Are dental implants right for you? Compare the pros and cons below:
- Implants function like your own teeth, allowing you to chew and speak normally.
- Designed to look like your natural teeth, improving your self-esteem.
- Reduce stress on your remaining natural teeth by offering independent support.
- Preserve bone, reducing the appearance of aging.
- Help prevent loss of jaw height.
- Easy to clean and care for.
- With proper care, implants can last between 15 and 25 years. They also typically last longer than dental bridges and dentures.
- Dental implants will not whiten like your natural teeth.
- Requires an invasive surgery for placement.
- They are expensive (but the long-term benefits are usually worth it).
- Always a risk for fracture (but this is low).
- Bone grafting may be necessary before placement if you do not have enough natural bone remaining.
Dental Implant Procedure: Step-By-Step
Endosteal implants are a type of outpatient surgery. Patients are able to return home the same day of surgery. However, the process can take many months to complete, especially during the healing process and before artificial tooth (crown) placement.
Dental implant procedures are separated into multiple steps, depending on the number of implants a patient needs:
Step 1 — Remove the Tooth
If the damaged tooth is still in your mouth, the dentist will extract the tooth. This step is not necessary if your tooth is already missing.
Step 2 — Grafting and Jawbone Preparation
Many patients who undergo implant surgery have thin or soft jawbones.
Step 3 — Implant Placement
During the actual procedure, the oral surgeon exposes the bone by cutting the gums with small instruments.
An oral surgeon or periodontist drills holes into the bone. Then they position the implant (a post) deep into the bone, which functions as the tooth’s root.
If a front tooth is being restored, the dentist will fill in the empty space with a temporary removable solution while the implant heals below the gums. If it is a back tooth, they will not place anything over it.
Step 4 — Healing and Growth
Osseointegration begins after the metal implant is placed in your jawbone.
This is when the supporting bone begins to bond with the implant. This process can take several months to complete and ensures the base is sturdy enough to support an artificial tooth (dental crown).
Step 5 — Abutment Placement (Crown Preparation)
After the healing process is complete, your dentist will place an abutment on top of the implant post.
The abutment extends the implant above the soft tissue (gums). This step allows for easy placement of the dental crown.
Step 6 — Crown Placement (Artificial Tooth)
Once the implant grows into the bone and is strong enough to support chewing, your dentist will make new impressions on your mouth.
Then a dental technician will create a custom dental crown in a lab. An artificial dental crown looks similar to your natural teeth. The crown sits on top of the abutment (connector) and becomes the only visible part of the implant.
Step 7 — Aftercare
Pain medications and antibiotics are usually prescribed post-op. During the healing process, it is also important to only eat soft foods and practice excellent oral care habits. Restricting the intake of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco is also essential to see the best results.
Regular check-ups are necessary during the first few months after the implant procedure is complete. You should also keep up with regular dental exams post-surgery.
Risk Factors of Dental Implants
Most implant procedures are successful.
Although, in rare cases, implants will fail or heal incorrectly. For example, smoking increases the risk of failure. To reduce this risk, it is crucial to practice good oral health care at home, including proper nutrition, brushing, and flossing.
As with any dental surgery, minor discomfort is normal.
Common conditions (that aren’t threatening to the implant) include:
- Gum and face swelling
- Bruises on the skin or gums
- Minor bleeding
- Pain where the implant was placed
More serious risks that can develop after an implant is placed include:
- Damage to your surrounding teeth, gums, and/or blood vessels
- Infection at the implant site
- Prolonged bleeding
- Sinus issues and pressure (if the implant is placed in your upper jaw)
- Fractured jaw and jaw pain
- Nerve damage, which can lead to tingling in the mouth or lips
How Much Do Dental Implants Cost?
Dental implants cost between $1,000 and $4,500 per tooth.
Does Insurance Cover Dental Implants?
Some insurance plans cover dental implants, while others do not or only cover part of the procedure. For example, the crown attached to the implant may be covered by some dental insurance plans. And, if the procedure is medically necessary, some medical insurance plans will cover part of the surgery.